Friday, August 16, 2019

Readings on the Power of the Nation-State Essay

World Society and the Nation-State by John W. Meyer, John Boli, George M. Thomas, and Francisco O. Ramirez * This essay begins by explaining that it is the world models of institutions and the purposes they serve—equality, socioeconomic progress, human development—are the foundations for the current nation-state order. These world models have become increasingly important in the post-war era as globalization has increased and intensified exponentially. * They then expand upon this point, explaining that traditionally, scholars believe that states are products of their own histories and internal forces. This essay asserts that this is inaccurate because in today’s era especially, there are many outside forces due to globalization that shape a nation state’s culture, institutions, and other features. * They argue that the main reasons for the emergence of world-society models have been out of wars, like World War II and the Cold War. These global conflicts may have pushed for the improvement of nationally organized progress and human development on the global scale. * Many scholars predict a failure of world-society, drawing upon evidence from the gross violations of world-cultural principles in Bosnia, the stagnant development in Africa, and the overall evasion of proper responsibility all over the globe. The Declining Authority of States by Susan Strange * Strange opens with the assertion that although they may not admit it, those in charge in capitalist nations are losing power and reputability. Politicians make empty promises and the people no longer believe them. It is exactly this type of discontent that brought down the Soviet Union and its satellite states. Political discontent by the public has risen globally and seems to be evident everywhere. * Strange also asserts that answers lie in the public opinion and everyday citizens of a country, not in the current political system. She says this because normal people use commonsense which seems to be more legitimate than the most common academic theories politicians base their notions upon. * Strange argues that after extensive study of the global political economy, she has come to the conclusion that we need to rethink some of the traditional concepts and assumptions that international relations are based upon. She presents four main assumptions that need to be revised: 1. The limits of politics as a  social activity. 2. The nature and sources of power within a society. 3. The necessity and contrasting invisibility of authority in a capitalist economy. 4. The anarchic nature of international society and rational conduct of states as the unitary actors in that society. * An interesting point Strange argues is that as governments try to gain more authority, they are squashing out ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples’ sovereignty. Some principle examples include the Basques of southwestern Europe, the Tibetans of China, the Scots of the United Kingdom, and the Aborigines of Australia.   Global Organized Crime by James H. Mittelman Mittelman explains that because of globalization, crime has completely evolved into a more complex and frightening concept. The new type of global crime involves crimes that didn’t even exist a few decades ago—computer crimes, money laundering, nuclear material theft, counterfeiting, stock market schemes, etc. Crime is also no longer localized, but taking place on a global scale. * Mittelman provides a chief example of this globalized crime using Chinese triads that have smuggled people illegally into the U.S. since the 1840’s. The corruption of the Chinese government and oppression of Chinese workers has caused this issue of illegal migration. * Mittelman also explains that global organized crime can be equated to transnational firms because they operate both above and below the state. Above the state, they operate using the manipulation of permeable borders and deregulation. Below the state, they operate by offering incentives to the marginalized populations who are struggling to cope with the effects of globalization. * He also describes the role of global crime in relation to the state. Traditionally, states are viewed as arbiters and mediators in interstate relations. However, this role is changing as crime has transcended borders and caused the cooperation of state governments to try and combat this trend. Mittelman also clarifies that although crime groups aren’t revolutionary or trying to take over the government, they are slowly changing the role of government and somewhat undermining its power.   Has Globalization Gone Too Far? By Dani Rodrik * Rodrik begins by asserting that globalization has dramatically increased the gap between the rich and the poor; the middle class is disappearing.  Because of this, tension between those in charge—the policymakers and market moguls—and those at the bottom—workers, environmentalists, etc.—has risen and become a major dividing factor. * This divide causes tension and a decrease in social stability. Rodrik highlights three main sources of tension. 1. Reduced barriers to trade and investment accentuate the imbalance between groups that can transcend international borders—capitalists, professionals, highly skilled workers—and those that can’t—unskilled workers. 2. Nations face major differences in terms of ideologies, politics, socioeconomics and this can cause conflicts within and between nations of opposing traditions. 3. Globalization has made it close to impossible for governing bodies to provide social insurance—a central function that has held societies together in the post-war period. * Rodrik then explains that in order to deal with these issues, policymakers must make difficult decisions in order to strike a balance between domestic cohesion and global interaction. Rodrik recognizes that this situation is usually viewed as a trade-off, however through maintaining a healthy balance between domestic needs and global progress, this can be achieved. Welfare Spending in an Era of Globalization: The North-South Divide by John Glenn * Glenn first recognizes that in less-industrialized states, welfare spending has decreased during the period of globalization due to the increased spending focused on structural development. On the other hand, highly industrialized nations have been the key agents in starting and maintaining globalization. * Glenn then examines two different hypotheses. The first states that nations are actively reconfiguring themselves in order to produce a business-nurturing environment. This competition state hypothesis claims that the globalization of the economy is putting the pressures on the states to make the business-conducive environment. The second hypothesis asserts that states make up for those who are most negatively affected by the economic progress and as a result of this, a decrease in social spending will not occur. * Glenn recognizes the overlap between these two hypotheses in that they both emphasize the importance of state investment in human capital in order to compete in the global economy of today. He also supports his findings with several tables  exhibiting different states’ growth of government expenditures, social spending trends, etc. in order for readers to visually see these trends that are occurring across the globe. World Culture and the Future of Schooling by David P. Baker and Gerald K. LeTendre * This article begins with the theory that education is, contrary to popular belief, a global undertaking. It defines the traditional, national vision of education as an institution for education and socialization of a country’s youth, preparing them to be successful adult citizens of their nation. The authors argue that this notion is inaccurate and is becoming more so every day. * The article asserts that global forces are shaping the evolution of schooling and education is growing more globally uniform due to the permeability of borders and educational values penetrating those borders and infiltrating educational systems within those borders. * The worldwide success of mass education is then examined. It is observed that all over the world, public schooling is educating the vast majority of youth and preparing them for a bright and educated future. In addition to this trend, traditional educational values have become widely accepted. These values can be education for the collective good, national government funding and interest in education, early education lasting through early adulthood as an effective tool in long-term impact, and statuses such as race, gender, religion and language should not deter an individual or group from accessing education.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Critical Thinking Scenario Essay

The skills that you cultivate as a critical thinker are intended to help you think your way through all of life’s situations. One of the most challenging and complex of life’s areas is moral issues and decisions. Every day of your life you make moral choices, decisions that reflect your own core moral compass. Often we are not aware of the deeper moral values that drive our choices, and we may even be ignorant to the fact that the choices we are making have a moral factor. Critical thinking plays a major role in assisting us in developing values, using moral reasoning, and to make ethical conclusions. The steps involved. Critical thinking is defined as having the means to articulate what you study, being open to all possibilities and able to draw your own conclusions based on what you have learned. There are six steps to the critical thinking process. The first is knowledge; you are able to identify with what you hear and read, the topic, issues, and main points. Step t wo is comprehension, being able to relate to the information and put it into your own words. Step three is application, taking what you have learned and apply it to an actual situation. Step four is analysis, which means breaking the information down to see how they are connected to other ideas. The final step is evaluation, this occurs when you understand with supporting details and you are able to form a conclusion. According to â€Å"Ethical Reasoning: A Key Capability† (2013), ethical reasoning is the â€Å"ability to reflect on moral issues in the abstract and in historical narratives within particular traditions. Ethical reasoning is the ability to identify, assess, and develop ethical arguments from a variety of ethical positions† (What Counts As Ethical Reasoning?). The principles and rules of critical thinking are applicable to ethical reasoning because they both allow individuals to distinguish more than one side of a dilemma. If everyone followed the rules and guidelines of logic, there would still be a need for ethical decision making because compliance depends on an individual’s desire to avoid punishment. When an organization or so ciety  relies on that method of doing the right thing to avoid severe consequences, the focus of its effort to promote ethical conduct undermines the effort by promoting misperception. The participants in the Blood Money scenario consists of the Media, The U.S. Government, China, Transplant Traffickers, Doctors, Victims, Prisoners and Army agencies. The medical profession is responsible for actively promoting ethical standards in medicine to ensure the best practices. The government and military have a responsibility to set forth laws that protect all individuals, prisoners and all. Healthcare workers, should also specify the dangers of organ trafficking and the health risks involved. The ones that are conducting the sales should understand that that could be them in the position of the prisoners and their organs are taken without their permission. The victims responsibility is to make sure their physician is highly regarded and against those practices. The stakeholders have also failed morally, as they would have prevented this from happening by not involving their interests into that area of spotlight. The moral dilemma is that is it right to take an organ from a prisoner who has done wrong and that be the ultimate punishment? Or, is it wrong to make money off the actions and build a thriving underground business? The conflict is that there are so many waiting for organ transplant that it does not seem harmful for those that will be killed or dead that no longer would have a use for the organs. The best outcome would be to set laws that protect the military from negotiating standards with hospitals to award them with immediate access to organs. Initiate programs within the country that people sign whether or not if they would like to donate their organs to someone in the event they die. After reading the transcripts and watching the video I was able to get supporting details from all characters that were involved. The relevance of the criteria was that the government knows about what is happening but they tend to turn the other cheek with no regard for human life. Sacrificing human beings is considered a taboo in many countries, but many would not want to believe that’s what it is. The possible courses of action would be to contact the government officials and deal with the consequences head-on. Ethically we all have to identify with the three main principles of life; justice, sufficiency, and solidarity. I was able to see the viewpoints of each side and that helped me reach my conclusion without being bias. The critical thinking process is important  because, it allows a neutral standpoint and able to reach a conclusion and determine based solely on the facts. References Ethical Reasoning: A Key Capability. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.wesleyan.edu/ethics/reason.html Pearson Learning Solutions (2014). Award-Winning Investigation: Blood Money [Video file]. Retrieved from Pearson website: https://media.pearsoncmg.com/pls/us/phoenix/1269738887/ANN_11-20-06_BloodMoney.html Ruggiero, V.R. (2015). Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

A Helicopter Parent

A helicopter parent may have good intentions, but his or her interference could make their child's life much more difficult in the long run. Today, there is an increase in the number of helicopter parents. The term â€Å"helicopter parent† defines the behavior of parents who seem just a tad too involved in their child's day-to-day life. We all understand that parents would do everything to keep their children out of harm's way, but sometimes, this desire can become an unhealthy obsession that can actually hurt their kids. At times I question myself, will the next generation of young people be able to actually think for themselves? Children of helicopter parents can become too dependent of their paternities. It is a very common factor in the Palauan society for parents to help their children with their bills, giving them money, babysitting, and even to the degree of buring their groceries and cleaning their homes. It is a very touchy subject to some as they feel pity for their children and want the best for them but at times it seems to get out hand. Those who constantly protect their children from any disappointment only decreases the child's chance of self-empowerment and growth as they mature. With helicopter parents, time may be more consumed with exaggerated observance and calming themselves down rather than helping their children to be self-reliant and independent. Allowing your children to fail and having them test their limits is the least a parent can do for their kids. In this way, a child can be more resourceful, productive, and become an independent learner, or acquires knowledge through his or her own efforts. Lack of confidence is also an effect of helicopter parenting. Parents who are overly involved and overly hovering around a child is a sign that the parents themselves are very anxious. Children can sense and pick up their parent's anxiety and become anxious themselves. When this happens, a child usually becomes instantly sad, isolated, or depressed. Either way, it brings a child to an unhappy place. Anxiety among your adults has significantly grown in recent years, some have turned depressed or even sick. Though this happens at home when the child lives with his or her parents, it occurs after they leave home as well. When parents guide their children in everything they do, they do not have the chance to show what they are capable of. As they mature, it will only make it difficult for them to make their own decisions as they are used to having someone around telling them what to do. They are also very much terrified of taking risks especially if it is something that is not common to them. Something as simple as, â€Å"You can do this† or â€Å"I'm so proud of you† can encourage a child and help them build their confidence. Believing in someone is simply letting them do what they know instead of being by their side the whole time telling them what to do and what not to do.

The Enduring Revolution of the Renaissance Essay

The Enduring Revolution of the Renaissance - Essay Example The Renaissance is generally described as the period of 1400 - 1600 when European thoughts and concepts went through a dramatic change. It drew its name, the Renaissance, from the reawakening to the ancient texts and knowledge of the Romans and the Greeks. The changes in social justice, art, science, and exploration impacted great change in Western thinking that continues to influence our society. A close examination of our American culture and institutions will uncover many roots that had their origin in the days of the European Renaissance. A major contribution of the Renaissance period was its placing knowledge in the hands of the ordinary person. Prior to this period, classical knowledge was left almost exclusively in the hands of scholars, professionals, and theologians. The invention of the printing press in 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg gave the general public the access to knowledge and philosophy. According to Thomas Carlyle in Sartor Resartus (1833), "He who first shortened the labor of copyists by device of movable types was disbanding hired armies [...] creating a whole new democratic world" (cited in Kreis 2004). The printing of the first bible in 1452 placed religion in the hands of the ordinary man and had a profound effect on religion. Spurred by classical philosophy, religion turned from the worship of the abstract towards the morality of man (Anesi 2004). This would sow the seeds of the Reformation and alter the Christian religion forever. This change in religion also brought about changes in the attitude towards the individual. Individualism took hold as people developed a respect for each human being and a willingness to work toward self-improvement. It led to changes in the legal and political systems resulting in a representative form of... A major contribution of the Renaissance period was its placing knowledge in the hands of the ordinary person. Prior to this period, classical knowledge was left almost exclusively in the hands of scholars, professionals, and theologians. The invention of the printing press in 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg gave the general public the access to knowledge and philosophy. According to Thomas Carlyle in Sartor Resartus (1833), "He who first shortened the labor of copyists by device of movable types was disbanding hired armies [...] creating a whole new democratic world" (cited in Kreis 2004). The printing of the first bible in 1452 placed religion in the hands of the ordinary man and had a profound effect on religion. Spurred by classical philosophy, religion turned from the worship of the abstract towards the morality of man (Anesi 2004). This would sow the seeds of the Reformation and alter the Christian religion forever. This change in religion also brought about changes in the attitude towards the individual. Individualism took hold as people developed a respect for each human being and a willingness to work toward self-improvement. It led to changes in the legal and political systems resulting in a representative form of government. The concept of sovereign nations was born out of these ideals. It valued the humanities as an educational endeavor and developed a sense of history and an awareness of our social structure.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

UKCCA Event Project assessment brief Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

UKCCA Event Project assessment brief - Essay Example Therefore, I project there will be a total of 500 fans. This is a good number which will enable the organizers to get adequate returns and make profits at the end of the event. Given that this is expected to be a spectacular event, it will have to be advertised to enable all the target audience to have adequate information about it. Because this event will be targeting the college students, adverts will be placed in the broadcast (TV) and online media. By using popular web sites and social media platforms, the organizers of this event will have to access the students who are so popular with these sites. Thus, they will acquire all the necessary information about it. In order to appeal to the target audience, all the necessary steps should be taken to ensure that event is made colorful and enjoyable. The target age group is made up of young excited and curious individuals who need to get a high level of satisfaction from such events (Carr, 2009). A part from inviting a renowned band of Jazz musicians to thrill them, the event organizers should extend their services to invite a DJ and offer a variety of dishes in the normal list of UKCCA menu. This will include the following meals: As a matter of fact, the organizers of this event are expected to incur lots of expenses. These will be used to cater for advertisement, hiring the artists, venue, staff and purchasing of food and drinks which will be consumed during the event. These expenses can be summarized in the table below: In order for this party to succeed as planned, there needs to be adequate preparation. Meaning, the organizers have to allocate enough time and resources. However, since it will not be a free event, each and every participant will have to be charged. No service will be granted free of charge. Therefore, the expected income is stated in the table below: Actually, one of the major objectives for

Monday, August 12, 2019

The Vast Solar System Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Vast Solar System - Assignment Example To further understand our solar system, it is important to get to know each planet that makes up the whole solar system. First of all, the earth in which we live in is the only planet that is able to support life. This is because of the fact that it consists of a thin layer of atmosphere that will protect living beings from cold and airless space outside. It is the third planet from the sun and is considered the fifth largest among other planets, with just a few hundred kilometers larger than planet Venus. Mercury, on the other hand is known to be the sun-scorched planet that is just slightly larger than the moon. It allows very little atmosphere and is covered with craters. During daytime, mercury is heated by the sun while at night, temperature in this planet drops hundreds of degrees below freezing that makes ice exist in its craters. Mercury has an egg-shaped orbit that revolves around the sun every 88 days. Venus, is another planet that is known for its having intense heat and v olcanic activity. It has a similar structure and size with the earth however Venus have thick and toxic atmosphere that traps heat in a â€Å"greenhouse effect†. This planet’s temperature is able to melt lead. A glimpse below the clouds would reveal volcanoes and deformed mountains. What is strange about Venus is that it spins slowly in the opposite direction of most planets in the solar system. Mars, is one that is considered a cold desert world. It has a size half of the Earth’s diameter and has the same amount of dry land. Just like Earth, Mars also goes through seasons, has polar ice caps, volcanoes, canyons, and weather. However, the difference between the two is that Mars has a very thin atmosphere for liquid water to exist for long in the surface. Research shows that Mars shows signs of ancient floods but evidence for water can only be seen through its icy soil and thin clouds. Jupiter is the biggest planet in the solar system. This is because of the fact that it has dozens of moons and an enormous magnetic field which forms a kind of its own solar system. Jupiter does not resemble a star when speaking of its composition but it does not grow big enough to ignite. The planet consists of swirling cloud stripes that are punctuated by massive storms such as the Great Red Spot which is continuously raging for years now. If you are looking for a unique planet among all that is in the solar system, Saturn is the one that will perfectly meet the description. It is adorned with thousands of beautiful ringlets where all four gas giant planets have rings, which are basically made up of chunks of ice and rock but no other planet could compare to the spectacular and at the same time complicated rings Saturn has. Like other gas giants, Saturn consists mostly of a massive ball of hydrogen and helium. However, according to astronomers, Saturn is the most distant of the five planets first known. Saturn has a volume which is 755 times greater than th at of the Earth where winds in its upper atmosphere would reach 500 meters per second in the equatorial region. These fast and strong winds combined with heat rising from within Saturn’s interior are the ones that cause the yellow and gold bands visible in the atmosphere that makes it unique. Uranus is the only giant planet who has an equator nearly at the right angles to its orbit. It has a size nearly the same with Neptune however, Uranus has more methane and is mainly made up of hydrogen and helium atmosphere than Jupiter or Saturn. Uranus has a blue tint which is caused by the methane. This planet was the first planet to be found using a telescope and

Sunday, August 11, 2019

THE GENERAL ELECTRIC AND THE HEWLETT PACKARD (HP) Essay

THE GENERAL ELECTRIC AND THE HEWLETT PACKARD (HP) - Essay Example The competitive advantage refers to an advantage gained over competitors either by providing greater value to consumers, by lowering the prices, or by offering more benefits and service which justifies the higher price. Corporate strategies are the central point of achieving the competitive advantage by making assumptions on an organization’s external environment and its resources, and by creating policies on how the organization should operate. General Electric and Hewlett Packard are the two most influential companies in the technology market. A comparative study of the strategies used by GE and HP reveals that both have formulated analogous strategies in the various aspects of their business operation. ----------------- Introduction The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly known as the HP, is a well established and very large global firm founded in 1939 by Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard and headquartered in California, United States. Their products focus mainly on technology li ke computer, printing, digital imaging, and also software services. General Electric (GE) is the producer of diversified technology, media, and services, and was incorporated in 1892. It offers products and services ranging from aircrafts engines, power generation, technology in medical imaging, business and consumer financing, and many more over 100 countries. The GE has a long history of success in their technological trade and their achievements prove the value of their view, â€Å"why predict the future when you can create it?† (Our history). The Economical Environment The economical environment of the business consists of four elements, they are Political, Economic, Social, and technological. The economic environment today is moving through vibrant and unstable phases due to globalization and increasingly competitive markets. However, the Hewlett Packard Company takes advantage of exploiting new markets all around the world, engaging with other multinational corporations . A big advantage to the company is their product diversity which helps them to survive the recession. At the same time, the GE is faced with many social issues regarding environmental pollutions. It has become a topic for controversies with regards to the immense ownership and control over the media sources. The company has been alleged for spending millions of dollars on commercial ads and television program sponsorships to ensure its environmental friendly image. The General Electric Company performs its functions in micro and macro environment. The micro-environment consists with customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders of the business. The GE treats its customers as an integral part of the company in the successful running of the business. The GE has taken higher efforts to integrate the company’s view with the customers’ view rather than considering them as mere investors. As customer service has been considered as the vital part of the performance, it mainta ins three crucial components regarding the quality offered to customers; the employees, the process, and the customers themselves. On the other hand, the organizational culture of HP is built up progressively over a time, which helps the employees to define how they feel about their job. The HP has succeeded in creating a positive influence of the culture on their employees. A positive culture helps to stimulate commitment towards the job and to achieve the proposed goals. Decision Making The General Electric Company employs some basic strategies in their decision making. One among them is to invest and tap the internal market within the reach of the company. This strategy seems to have utilized the principle that ‘a business must be employee-oriented if it wishes to be customer-oriented’